The Great DVDExotica Glossary

Pretty self-explanatory, right?  This here is a glossary of technical terms frequently used on this site.  But you might be saying, hey, I'm already on the internet, I can just Google any word I don't recognize.  Why go through the laborious process (and believe me, it was!) of making this page?  Well, because these aren't just standard or common dictionary definitions, but definitions specific to DVDs/ home video/ how the words are used here.  "Anamorphic," for example, can apply to photographic or theatrical projection lenses - and the same fundamental principle is applies across the board - but the definition here is a customized one specifically for how I use it on this site, re: anamorphic discs.  So it should be quicker and easier for you guys to understand what I'm taking about than if you look up the terms elsewhere.  And it can be tiring have to re-explain some of the more eclectic concepts over again in review after review.  So now I can just say something, and if you're not sure, you can look it up here.

👋  Hope this proves handy!

Also known as DCI 2K, 2k (as in 2000) refers to a display resolution commonly used in the digital cinema industry with approximately 2048 pixels horizontally and 1080 pixels vertically, which is slightly higher than standard high-definition (HD) resolution. It is, however, lower in resolution than 4k (duh!) and going out of fashion in the home video world.
As in 4000; it's the resolution of an ultra-high-definition display format that offers four times the pixel count of standard high-definition (HD) resolution. It provides a sharper and more detailed image, with a resolution of approximately 3840 pixels horizontally and 2160 pixels vertically. 4K is currently the upper standard resolution of modern televisions and digital content.
Also known as standard or fullscreen aspect ratio, it's the boxier rectangular shape video is frequently displayed as when it isn't "in widescreen." The numbers represent a width-to-height ratio of 4 units wide to 3 units tall. It was the standard aspect ratio for television and computer monitors before the advent of widescreen formats, and is commonly associated with older content, such as classic movies or TV shows.
An audio system for a surround sound speaker set-up that consists of five main audio channels and one low-frequency effects (LFE) channel. The 5 represents the five main channels, which are typically front left, front center, front right, rear left, and rear right that each provide directional audio cues, ideally contributing to a more immersive experience. Then the .1 refers to the LFE channel, which is dedicated to low-frequency sounds, such as deep bass and rumbling effects.  In a 5.1 audio setup, the main channels are typically delivered through five separate speakers placed strategically around the listening area, while the LFE channel is reproduced by a subwoofer to enhance the low-frequency impact.
This is the aspect ratios of widescreen televisions, as well as 1.78:1 films (why yes, American widescreen televisions were designed to fit an exclusively European aspect ratio).  It refers to an image being sixteen units wide by nine tall.  The phrase "16x9 enhanced" is also a synonym for "anamorphically enhanced," regarding DVDs, where the image has been encoded to reach the sides of the screen.  Thus, the aspect ratio is preserved while "filling" a widescreen TV (see: Anamorphic).
The video resolution of blu-rays. The number literally refers to the height of a full blu-ray image in pixels, or the amount of vertical lines. A BD is 1920 pixels wide by 1080 tall. By comparison, this is more than a DVD (720x480) and less than a UHD (3840x2160). The "p" or "i" then stands for the scanning method/ display format, either Progressive (usually the preferable one) or Interlaced (see: Interlaced, Progressive).
Academy Ratio
The "Academy Standard" 1.37:1 aspect ratio established by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as the industry standard for film exhibition. It was the standard aspect ratio used in the early days of cinema, particularly during the "Golden Age of Hollywood." The Academy Ratio is characterized by a nearly square-shaped frame, with a width that is 1.37 times its height. It is just very slightly wider than the standard 1.33:1 full-frame television aspect ratio, and the distinction has often been blurred, with older movies being released in 1.33 on DVD.  But more modern, higher quality releases, especially on blu, have been better about preserving the more accurate 1.37 framing.
Amary Case
Your standard, plastic DVD/ Blu-ray case. The amary case features a hinged design with a transparent plastic cover to view the disc's label or artwork. The case opens and snaps shut securely, to protect the disc from dust and other potential damage. It typically includes an internal hub or tray that securely holds the disc in place, but away from the back, preventing it from sliding or scratching during storage or transport.  Amary cases are known for their slim profile, which allows for efficient storage of multiple discs.
A video encoding technique that optimizes widescreen movies for contemporary, widescreen (16x9) televisions. Essentially, it stretches the image horizontally, preserving the original aspect ratio, to the full width of the screen. A film on a non-anamorphic disc will be surrounded by negative space: a lower resolution image surrounded by "black bars" not just on the top and bottom, but on the sides.  Anamorphic encoding crushes the image to 4:3 but tells the player to stretch it back out the edges of the screen, giving you a full-size, higher res image.
AR (Aspect Ratio)
The proportional relationship between the width and height of a video frame, as in the shape of the video display. It's a ratio where the first number refers to the height and the second is the width, so for example, a 4:3 movie is four units wide for every three units tall.
Visible stripes of color or tonal variations that appear as artifacts in a video image. It occurs due to excessive compression, limited bit depth, or color range, resulting in a loss of smooth transitions and detail. It's often most noticeable in smooth backgrounds, like walls or skies, where you'll see ugly diagonal lines instead of a smooth wash of color.
BD (Blu-ray Disc)
An optical disc format designed for high-definition (HD) video and audio playback. It offers superior video and audio quality compared to DVDs and can store larger amounts of data. They're named for the blue-violet laser that used to read and write them, which has a shorter wavelength allowing for more precise reading of the finer pits and lands on the disc surface.
BDR (Blu-ray Disc Recordable)
BDR discs are similar to regular Blu-ray discs but differ in that they are recordable, meaning they can be written to once using a compatible Blu-ray recorder or burner, i.e. the blank discs one can buy at Office Max, etc.  Unlike professionally pressed discs, these tend to have shorter life spans, a higher risk of damage to the data side, and sometimes have playback issues with picky players.  But they are much cheaper to produce.
An early consumer video cassette formats that competed with, and lost to, VHS. Betamax offered a higher video quality than VHS, but it had shorter recording time and was more expensive. But because of its higher quality, it lasted longer as a niche professional format even after VHS took over the consumer market.
An unauthorized copy or reproduction of a copyrighted movie (or whatever product). Bootleg DVDs are sold illegally without the permission of the copyright holder. They're typically known for being lower quality compared to official releases, often lacking proper packaging and features found on their legitimate counterparts, and are generally to be avoided or ethical reasons, legal reasons, and just not to be stuck paying for a crappy product (See also: Grey Market).
A visual artifact that can occur during the playback of interlaced video content. Interlaced video is a display format where each frame is split into two fields, with one field containing even lines and the other containing odd lines. When the interlaced video is viewed on a progressive display (i.e. modern televisions or computer screens), combing artifacts can be observed as horizontal lines appearing on moving objects or during rapid motion scenes. This artifact is caused by the incomplete alignment of the two fields, resulting in a temporal discrepancy between them. Combing is more noticeable on larger screens or with fast-moving content, and it can reduce the overall visual quality and sharpness of the video. Newer display technologies and video processing techniques have mitigated combing artifacts by de-interlacing the video, but this still results in a degraded image (see: Ghosting).
Component Video
An analog video cable that separates the video signal into three separate components: red, green, and blue (RGB). It provides better video quality than S-Video and Composite video, as it keeps the video signals separate, reducing color bleeding and providing sharper images. Component video cables often use three RCA connectors, and they are commonly used for high-definition devices like HDTVs, DVD players, and game consoles.
Composite Video
An analog video cable that combines all video information into a single signal. It uses a yellow RCA connector (or sometimes an F-pin), usually in conjunction with stereo red and white audio cables, and carries the entire video signal, including luminance and chrominance, as well as synchronization signals. Composite video is a lower-quality option compared to S-Video and HDMI. It is commonly found on older devices, VCRs, and standard-definition TVs.
The technique used to reduce the size of video data while attempting to preserve acceptable visual quality. It is crucial for fitting feature-length movies and supplementary content onto limited DVD storage space. Compression algorithms and codecs are employed to eliminate redundant or nonessential information, such as duplicate pixels, frames, or less noticeable details, in order to decrease file size. However, there is a trade-off between compression and visual fidelity, as overly aggressive compression can introduce artifacts like blockiness or blurring. DVDs typically use standards like MPEG-2 to strike a balance between video quality and file size, ensuring that movies can be stored on discs without significant loss of visual fidelity. The level of compression can vary between DVD releases, with some prioritizing higher video quality and others maximizing the amount of content that can be included on a disc.
In a nutshell, if you overly darken an image when mastering an image for disc, shadowy areas turn pitch black, and detail that used to be visible gets erased into solid black. The same thing happens when you brighten an image where bright areas turn pure white, erasing detail that you used to be able to see in the light areas. Even if viewers adjust the brightness, contrast or gamma settings on their set, they won't be able to recover these picture details, because the engineer effectively erased the information from the transer that had been in the original film.
DCP (Digital Cinema Package)
The digital file outputted by the filmmakers themselves, sent out to be used for the distribution and exhibition in movie theaters and other venues. They're typically delivered on hard drives or transmitted electronically to theaters, streamers or to publishers for mastering on home video.  These are roughly the equivalent of a final negative for digital films, the first generation, before anyone's compressed it for another format, etc.
DI (Digital Intermediate)
A process in filmmaking where the original camera negative is digitized to create a high-resolution digital copy of the film. This digital version serves as a foundation for various post-production tasks, such as color grading, CGI visual effects, and editing.
Digital Video to the Max!  An early process of using an HD master for SD DVDs, coined by Anchor Bay.
DNR (Digital Noise Reduction)
A video processing tool to reduce or eliminate digital noise or grain in the image by analyzing the image and applying algorithms to smooth out perceived imperfections. DNR can make an image appear clearer and cleaner, however, excessive use can erase details and result in a "waxy" or artificial look.  It tends to reduce natural film grain; and arguably, the optimal amount of DNR to apply on home video transfers is none at all.
DVD (Digital Versatile Disc, or Digital Video Disc)
An optical disc used for storing and playing back digital audio, video, and other data. It became a popular format for home video entertainment in the 90s, replacing the previously dominant VHS tapes. DVDs utilize laser technology to read and write data, with a red laser being used to read information encoded on the disc's surface, and have a standard storage capacity of 4.7 (single-layered) or 9 gigabytes (dual-layered). They also introduced interactive menu screens, making it much easier to navigate chapters, special features and multiple language options than previous formats.
DVD-R (Digital Versatile Disc Recordable)
A type of recordable optical disc used for storing data, including video content. In other words a blank or burnt DVD.  A purchased DVD-R is usually a homemade bootleg, but their are exceptions.  (see: MOD).
DVR (Digital Video Recorder)
Strictly speaking, a DVR is just the digital device that allows people to record and store television programs on a built-in hard drive. But the term is misused often enough that it's become a colloquial synonym for DVD-R. And hey, it is easier to say.
Edge Enhancement
A video processing technique used to boost the perceived sharpness and clarity of edges in an image, like to make an actor stand out from his background. Edge enhancement can create the illusion of increased detail and crispness in the picture, but it's effectively "drawing" on the image.  Excessive or poorly implemented edge enhancement can result in unnatural artifacts and a harsh, over-processed appearance, introducing halo effects where a bright or dark outline appears around objects. It's arguable that on lower res, SD images, a little edge enhancement could help clarify parts of the image that were lost in the smaller, compressed files, and it was in common use by the major studios.  But in the age of HD, it's usually considered destructive and best avoided altogether.
Flipper Disc
A double-sided disc, which instead of having your standard label and data sides, has data on both sides, and only a super slim label on the inner rim. Unpopular for propensity to collect finger prints and their lack of an attractive label, they were cheaper to produce than two discs, so studios often opted for them in the earlier days of DVD.
A 4:3 video display, as opposed to widescreen.  The term was coined when TVs were all 4:3, so a video in that ratio would fill the screen without any "black bars" or letterboxing. Ironically, now that TVs are widescreen, 16x9 images now fill the screen while 4:3 images leave thick black bars along both sides. Obviously all movies, games and shows should always be displayed in their OAR, and changing all of our TVs to an arbitrarily different shape was pretty silly, but regardless, "fullscreen" still means 4:3.
A visual flaw characterized by faint, transparent duplicate images appearing alongside the main subject or object on the screen. It occurs when there is a delay or persistence of previous frames in the video playback, leading to a ghost-like effect. This artifact can be caused by various factors, such as poor video encoding or issues with the playback device or display, but in for our purposes, is usually the result of a player de-interlacing an interlaced image. Ghosting can make an image blurry or distorted, and creates a jerky movement during scenes with horizontal movement or panning.
Grey Market
A DVD (or whatever product) that is being sold or distributed outside the authorized channels or without proper licensing from the copyright holder, but not strictly against the law (see: Bootleg). Grey market DVDs are often produced in countries where copyright laws are less strict, so you don't actually legally need to license a title to release it, though they're doing it without the owners' involvement or consent.  Consequently, they have a tendency to be substandard releases; but every once in a while, they're our best or only option.
A visual artifact that appears as a bright or dark outline around objects or edges in the image - sometimes appearing like a literal halo around an actor's head. It is typically caused by excessive edge enhancement or improper video processing where artificial bright/ darkness is digitally added around edges to make them stand out from their backgrounds.
HD (High Definition)
Video content with a higher resolution compared to standard definition (SD) content. It literally means a higher amount of pixels on the screen.  HD video typically has a minimum resolution of 720p (1280x720 pixels) or higher, offering more detail, clarity, and sharpness. Common HD video formats include 720p, 1080p (Blu-ray resolution: 1920x1080 pixels), 4K (UHD resolution: 3840x2160 pixels) and 8K (7680x4320 pixels).
HD DVD (High Def DVD)
The high-definition optical disc format that competed with Blu-ray in the early 2000s "Format Wars" to be the successor to DVD. Like blus, HD DVDs could store more data and used a blue-violet laser to read the discs, allowing for higher res video. The format was officially discontinued in 2008 and is now obsolete.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface)
A digital video and audio cable that transmits high-definition signals over a single line. HDMI cables support high-resolution video formats, including 4K and 8K, as well as surround sound audio. With shift to high-def digital technology, analog connections like S-Video, Composite, and Component are being phased out in favor of HDMI, which provides superior video and audio quality.
HDR (High Dynamic Range)
Video tech that enhances the contrast and color accuracy of the content. It allows for a wider and more vibrant range of colors, including deeper blacks and brighter highlights, more closely matching the real world. HDR content literally contains a greater amount of color and brightness information, and so it requires compatible HDR sets, with more nits, to display properly.
A display format where each frame is split into two fields, typical of broadcast television and older home video formats, with one field containing even lines and the other containing odd lines. When the interlaced video is viewed on a progressive display (i.e. modern televisions or computer screens), "combing" artifacts can be observed as horizontal lines appearing on moving objects or during rapid motion scenes. This artifact is caused by the incomplete alignment of the two fields, resulting in a temporal discrepancy between them. Combing is more noticeable on larger screens or with fast-moving content, and it can reduce the overall visual quality and sharpness of the video. An interlaced blu-ray is commonly labeled 108oi. Newer display technologies and video processing techniques have mitigated combing artifacts by deinterlacing the video, but this still results in a degraded image (see: Ghosting).
IP (Interpositive)
An intermediate positive copy of a film created from the original negative. It serves as an intermediary step in film production, and is used to create duplicate negatives for distribution or archival purposes. The interpositive is typically created by making a positive copy of the original negative, resulting in a positive image with colors and tones that closely resemble the original footage. It acts as a master copy from which additional copies can be made without further degradation of the original negative. It's a generation down from the original negative, but up from release prints.
Jewel Case
A hard plastic hinged case, commonly associated with CDs and DVDs. It has a clear front cover with slots to hold an insert or slim booklet and a hub to hold the disc in its hub without touching the back (and potentially getting scratched).
n optical disc that uses analog technology to store and play back video and audio content. A laserdisc is 12-inches around, the same size as your average vinyl record. Lasers offered better video and audio quality compared to VHS tapes, including uncompressed audio and the option for alternate tracks (i.e. audio commentaries). However, they were expensive, and often had to be manually flipped over to the other side mid-movie. They were the superior format compared to VHS, but more for niche collectors, and quickly rendered obsolete with the advent of DVDs.
A physical section or stratum of the disc where data is stored. DVDs and Blu-rays often consist of multiple layers, each containing unique information that can be read by the optical disc drive. The presence of multiple layers enables these discs to store larger amounts of data, making them more suitable for high-quality video and audio content, though they're also more expensive to produce. DVDs are typically single- or dual-layered. The single-layer side of a DVD can store around 4.7 gigabytes (GB) of data, while the dual-layer side can hold approximately 8.5 GB. There can sometimes be a brief one-time pause during playback, more noticeable on older devices, when the player has to switch layers. Blu-rays are also typically single- or dual-layered, with each layer capable of holding approximately 25 GB of data for a total of 50 on a dual-layer disc. UHDs can have up to three layers, 33.3 GB each, so you can have single, dual (66GB) or triple-layered (100GB) discs.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
A type of flatscreen TV that uses a backlighting system and liquid crystal cells to produce images. LCD and LED TVs are slimmer, more energy-efficient, and generally offer a longer lifespan than Plasma TVs, which are said to have deeper blacks.
LED (Light-Emitting Diode)
A type of LCD TV that uses LED lights as the backlight source, providing better contrast and energy efficiency. LCD and LED TVs are slimmer, more energy-efficient, and generally offer a longer lifespan than Plasma TVs, which are said to have deeper blacks.
The black bars that run over and under a widescreen film on your TV.  If your movie is wider than your set, it's displayed in letterbox.  It's so named, apparently, because it's shaped like a letterbox (mail slot) on one's front door.  Isn't that cute?
Lossy/ Lossless
Loss is when digital audio information is removed from an audio file during compression to fit it on a disc, or just a generally smaller video file. This results in a lower quality track. Some forms of encoding, typically on higher capacity discs, are able to preserve everything, and thus are "lossless."
Visual artifacting characterized by blocks or patches of pixelated areas in the image. It is typically caused by over compression in the encoding onto discs, or insufficient data bandwidth during transmission, the latter of which tends to be a streaming thing. You wind up losing information, with the area appearing literally blocky, with small chunks of pixels run together.
Special edition packaging for a DVD or Blu-ray release in the style of a book, with printed pages inside a hardcover, which also houses hubs for one or more discs, usually on the inside covers. These are especially prominent in Germany for some reason.
mm (MilliMeter)
As in film stock (8mm, 16mm, 35mm, 70mm), literally measuring the width of the film strip.  The higher the mm, the higher the picture quality with more/ finer detail (and also the cost).  8mm tends to look like grungy old home movies, and 70mm are rare, especially lavish films.
MOD (Made On Demand)
Discs literally made individually for each purchasing customer (as opposed to pressing large batches to be sold en masse.  Although, often times, "MOD" releases are actually small batches pressed at once rather than literally one at a time.  They are also often, though not always, DVD-Rs and BD-Rs instead of properly pressed discs.  And they frequently have fewer features than their mass market counterparts.
Single channel audio, or more commonly with DVDs and BDs, a separated, single stream mix of audio that's still split through two channels (i.e. both speakers on your TV).  Most older films and shows were recorded and released with a mono track, so even if it's being released on a brand new, fancy BD, the original purist track would still be the mono.
A unit of measurement for brightness or luminance on a television screen. It indicates the amount of light emitted by a display. The higher the number of nits, the brighter the display can get. Nits are particularly relevant in HDR (High Dynamic Range) technology, where displays aim to achieve a wider dynamic range and more vibrant colors. A higher nit value allows for better visibility of details in bright or dark scenes.
NTSC (National Television System Committee)
One of two different analog television standards used in different parts of the world (the other is PAL). NTSC is used primarily in North America, Japan, and some parts of South America and Asia. It operates at a frame rate of 29.97 frames per second and has a resolution of 525 lines.  PAL televisions cannot play NTSC content without a converter (though most region free DVD players do freely convert between the two), and vice versa.  NTSC has a higher frame rate but lower resolution than PAL.
OAR (Original Aspect Ratio)
The filmmakers' official choice of aspect ratio, as opposed to any altered versions released subsequently.  A film's aspect ratio affects the composition, visual impact, and intended viewing experience of a film and really, really, really ought to be respected and faithfully preserved on home video. (see: AR)
OCN (Original Camera Negative)
The unprocessed and unedited film footage captured directly by the camera during the production of a movie or video. It preserves the finest level of detail, color, and dynamic range as it is the original film, not a later generation element.  It's the highest quality source for restoration and most important element for preservation.
OOP (Out of Print)
A disc (or whatever product) that it is no longer being produced or made available for sale by the publisher. Once a product goes out of print, it becomes increasingly difficult to find a copy, though it doesn't mean websites and stores might not still have some in stock.
This mostly pertains to older TVs, but when the exact edges of a TV's screens were not 100% consistent, less important information was left in the overscan area (about 2-5% of the image around all four sides), where it wouldn't spoil anything if your particular set cut it off.  For example, you wouldn't place subtitles at the very, absolute bottom of the picture, because a TV might clip off the bottom edge.  Purist presentations of a film, like for instance a Criterion DVD, might slightly windowbox a film (see: Windowbox) to ensure that 100% of the film was absolutely on screen.  But on newer sets, you'd see the black boarders and wasted space.
PAL (Phase Alternating Line)
One of two different analog television standards used in different parts of the world (the other is NTSC). PAL is used in most of Europe, Australia, and some parts of Asia and Africa. It operates at a frame rate of 25 frames per second and has a resolution of 625 lines.  PAL has a lower frame rate (and plays roughly 4% faster) and higher resolution than NTSC.
Pan and Scan
A technique to adjust the aspect ratio of a widescreen film or to fit the dimensions of a standard 4:3 television screen. A digital operator literally pans the frame horizontally around the image to focus on the most important elements of the shot. This means you're still cropping the a widescreen image to fit a fullscreen display, but instead of just arbitrarily cutting off the sides, you're constantly scanning the image to find relevant parts to pan to.  It still completely compromises the original composition, and adds extra, unnatural camera movement in the process, but can be a lesser evil when cropping the sides would literally cut out crucial visual information.
Just like letterboxing (see: Letterbox) except the black bars run along the left and right sides of the image rather than the top and bottom.  On modern sets, you'll see this on fullscreen films or any video taller than 1.78:1.  1.66:1 films will have slimmer bars, and fullscreen programs will have thicker ones.
A type of flat-screen TV that uses plasma cells and gas discharge technology to create images, offering deep black levels. However, plasma TVs are bulkier, consume more power, and have a shorter lifespan than LCD and LED sets. They're also generally more expensive.
Picture Quality. ☺ 
A pressed disc refers to DVD or Blu that is manufactured through a pressing or replication process. It involves creating a glass master from the original source material and then using that to mold and replicate multiple copies of the disc.  During the pressing process, a layer of reflective material, such as aluminum, is added to the disc substrate. The glass master is then used to stamp the data onto the disc, creating pits and lands that represent the digital information. Once the data is stamped onto the disc, a protective layer, typically made of lacquer, is applied to safeguard the disc's surface.  Pressed discs are the standard method of mass-producing DVDs and Blu-rays. They are known for their high-quality replication and compatibility with a wide range of playback devices, offering more durability and longevity than "burnt" discs (see: BDR).
The final film copies of the movie which were sent to out to movie theaters for projection. Typically, many copies were made and sent around the world.  They preserve less detail then the original negatives or earlier generation elements, and are more likely to have gotten damaged being handled by projectionists.  Ideally, a DVD or blu-ray would be struck from a higher film element up the chain, but sometimes a print is the best source publishers can get their hands on.
A scanning method that captures or displays each frame of a video in its entirety, line by line, from top to bottom, as opposed to interlaced scanning, where each frame is divided into two fields and scanned alternately. A progressive blu-ray is commonly labeled 1080p. Progressive scanning provides a smoother and more detailed picture, free of combing, making it preferred for modern displays and offering a higher-quality viewing experience.
4:3 or 3:2 pulldown is a process used to convert the frame rate of video content for a final product.  It involves duplicating and distributing film frames in a specific pattern, depending on the exact source. This conversion maintains compatibility with different televisions and video playback devices that rely on a certain frame rate.  For example 24fps filmstock for 30fps TV.  DV cameras and other devices often resulted in highly interlaced video if the footage wasn't run through the proper pulldown process, which sometimes even relatively professional companies struggled with.  In short, it's a potential source of interlacing problems if not done correctly.
RCA (Radio Corporation of America)
Cables (or more accurately, the connector jacks at the ends of cables) for component and composite audio and video: the classic red, white and yellows.
Region encoding is a digital mechanism used to restrict the playback of DVDs and BDs to specific geographic regions, ensuring that a disc purchased in one region cannot be played on a player from another (though they can be modifided and made to be compatible with all). DVDs are encoded in six numberic regions (the USA is #1), and BDs are encoded in three alphabetic regions (the USA is A). Discs can also be region free, or Region 0, which means they play on all players anywhere in the world. UHDs are meant to all be region free, though there are a handful of exceptions.
Most plainly, this refers to the number of pixels that make up the image displayed on a screen. This determines the level of detail and clarity in the visual presentation. Resolution is typically expressed as the number of horizontal pixels multiplied by the number of vertical pixels, such as 1920x1080 (Full HD) or 3840x2160 (4K Ultra HD). Resolution is determined both by the content source (i.e. DVD, Blu-ray, etc) and what your set itself is capable of displaying.
Disc rot is a gradual degradation or deterioration of DVD discs over time, leading to the loss of data and rendering the disc unplayable. It is typically caused by chemical reactions or physical defects in the disc's layers, such as the reflective layer or the protective coating. This deterioration can result in visible discoloration, spots, or patterns on the surface of the disc, as well as read errors or skipping during playback. It's fairly rare, but has been known to happen to laserdiscs, DVDs and blus. Usually certain titles from specific manufactuers tend to be consistnetly susceptible. Disc rot is irreversible and largely out of consumer's hands, primarily influenced by factors such as manufacturing quality, storage conditions, and the materials used in the disc's construction.
S-Video (Separate Video)
An analog video cable that transmits video signals in Separate components: luminance (brightness) and chrominance (color), commonly used for older devices like VCRs, DVD players, and older gaming consoles.. It uses a round connector with multiple pins and delivers a higher quality of video compared to composite cables, but like all analog cables, is no generally being phased out for HDMIs.
SD (Standard Definition)
Video content with a resolution of 480p (NTSC) or 576p (PAL), a notably lower pixel count compared to higher-resolution formats. It was the predominant video standard of DVDs, older television broadcasts and VHS tapes.
Slipbox/ Slipcase
Like a slipcover, it acts as a decorative sheath over a standard amary case. But where a slipcover is open at the top and bottom, a slipbox is open at one of the spines. They're also usually made of thicker, sturdier materials than slipcovers and are built more to last, as slipcovers, at least originally, were intended to be more disposable.  Slipboxes, or slipcases, may also house additional items like booklets, posters or second amary cases.
You know, those decorative covers that slide over a standard amary case. They're typically made of cardboard and serve as an outer sleeve for the DVD packaging, I think originally designed in part to discourage shoplifters from slipping the discs out of their cases in-store. But now they're considered collectible and are often an integral part of limited edition packaging.
Snap Case
Or "snapper crapper." A particular kind of DVD case created by Warner Bros, which used more cardboard than plastic. The front cover is held shut by a little plastic catch that snaps into place. Plastic amary cases survive wear and the test of time much better than cardboard snappers, so these were eventually phased out.
Audio streamed through two channels and mixed with right and left separation. A mono track coming through right and left speakers will play exactly the same sound through both.  But a stereo track will have different sounds, or volume levels, for each speaker for a more immersive experience. There are more complex audio set-ups available now, like 5.1, with different sounds coming from even more directions.  But most home video set-ups, including just a basic TV, is designed to handle stereo.
A Superbit DVD is... just a regular DVD that plays in a regular DVD player. What they've done is removed any special features, right down to the animated menus, and filled the disc with the movie only, so it has room to give the film a higher bitrate. So does that make it the equivalent of a blu-ray or HD DVD? No, it's still just a regular standard def DVD. But they've devoted all their available space to give the feature a more robust encode. So at least the Superbit line implies that they're paying extra special close attention to the compression and the transfer.
UHD (Ultra High Density)
A storage format that allows for a significantly higher amount of data to be stored on a disc, offering greater storage capacity than DVDs or Blu-rays.  Ultra high density formats can accommodate higher resolution video content (i.e. 4k), utilizing advanced compression techniques and increased data storage capacity to hold more data.
A digital post-processing technique that, despite its name, actually increases edge contrast, making edges appear sharper and more defined. Used to excess, it can create an unnatural or over-sharpened look; and similar to tools like DNR and edge enhancement, is often best not used at all in home video mastering.
An "upconvert" very specifically refers to putting a lower res video film, such as standard definition (SD) film, onto a higher res format, such as a blu-ray disc.  This is a deceptive (and happily rare) practice, typically used when a distributor doesn't actually have the source materials necessary for a proper HD release.  So, for example, instead of an HD master of a film used to create a blu-ray disc, they use the same old SD master from the DVD - or even just rip the DVD and use the resulting file - and put it on a Blu-ray disc, giving us the same low quality image with the improvement you'd naturally expect going from DVD to BD.  It's the kind of thing you mostly just see with bootlegs and public domain properties.  And there are a few instances where perhaps only an SD master of a film exists, so it would still be appropriate to use that for a BD release, but even that must be disclosed, because it's generally a dishonest tactic to fool consumers into thinking they're getting HD product when they buy an HD disc.
VCD (Video Compact Disc)
A compact disc format that allows for the storage and playback of video (and audio) content. VCDs use MPEG-1 compression to store the video and audio data, offering a lower video quality compared to DVDs or Blu-rays. But they were popular in the 1990s as an affordable alternative to DVDs people could easily burn on their home computers. They can still be played on most DVD players, and lasted longer in some Asian markets.
VHS (Video Home System)
The most common format of video cassette tape.  It's a magnetic tape format used for recording and playback of analog video and audio content on a VCR (Video Cassette Recorder), most popular in the 80s.  VHS tapes became obsolete with the rise of DVDs, due to their lower picture quality, lack of features and tendency to degrade over time, but they were the dominant format in their day.
WCG (Wide Color Gamut)
An expanded range of colors that can be displayed on a screen. This technology is often associated with HDR (High Dynamic Range) content and displays, allowing for a more extensive palette of colors, including vibrant and saturated shades that were previously not possible with standard color gamuts. WCG is supported by certain video formats, such as Ultra HD Blu-ray and streaming platforms, and requires compatible displays or TVs to accurately reproduce the extended color range.
This can refer to a video or a screen with an aspect ratio that is wider than the traditional 4:3 (or "fullscreen") aspect ratio. Movies were originally in the Academy Ratio, but went widescreen to compete with television programming. Then televisions were made widescreen to feel more cinematic. And now most television programs are widescreen, too.  Widescreen films may need to be letterboxed on your screen, depending on their AR.  Widescreen TVs are 1.78:1, but widescreen movies come in a variety of ratios, from 1.66:1 to 2.40:1.
Like Letterboxing, except windowboxing places bars around all four sides.  This is frequently caused by discs not being anamorphically enhanced, and so widescreen films won't extend to the sides of the screen, leaving you with a lower resolution, center screen, surrounded by negative space.  Sometimes older DVDs were also intentionally slightly windowboxed to protect the edges from being lost in older televisions' overscan areas (see: Overscan).

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